1: Points for petrol
Many countries use a repressive point system next to financial sanctions for traffic violations.
The problem is that In general these systems have little or no impact on traffic because people learn to live with them. It's like living with a disease. Its uncomfortable but there is nothing you can do about it except continue living. Losing or getting points becomes passive knowledge.
Most systems usually return points after a certain amount of time. The key issue is that this does not take into account the amount of kilometers a driver drives in that time. And because it is human to error this results in the most experienced drivers having trouble maintaining their licenses.
Solution: Why not voluntarily register fuel purchases through banks? Once a month the banks just forward the total petrol purchases of one person to a central register which then subsequently rewards drivers license points.
An active point system like this won't raise any privacy questions. If, for instance, a point is returned for every 500 liters or 750 euro's (which is roughly 5000 kilometers) the system would be far better balanced.
A nice side effect is the fact that the pool of potential instructors and examiners will sharply increase thus also solving the shortage of these people.